(officially: the Republic of Namibia) is a very sparsely populated country in southern Africa between Angola, Zambia, Botswana, South Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A long, up to 100 meters boundary line - and the only Four Corners of the Earth - is in dispute with Zimbabwe.
The name of the state is derived from the Namib desert, which occupies the entire coastal area of the country. It was chosen at independence as a neutral term to annoy any of the many peoples of Namibia. In German-speaking world still exists, the less common name "Namibia". German-speaking inhabitants of Namibia talk occasionally even of "Südwest" as an abbreviation for South West Africa (former German South West Africa or 1919-1990 South West Africa) - a term used by the residents - evokes very different associations - depending on skin color, political and historical character.
From the same political reasons it was decided in 1990 against the existing official languages and chose instead the English language, which many older people, not primarily, in the north of the country. The majority of the population speaks alongside Bantu or Khoisan languages, Afrikaans, and some German.
National Holiday is 21 March, Independence Day (1990).
Typical picture for large parts of Namibia: The red sand of the Namib, grass savannah, mountains - and a farm fence
Namibia is located between 17.87 ° and 29.9808 ° south latitude and 12 ° and 25 ° east longitude. This corresponds to the northern hemisphere about the situation of Libya and northern Chad.
Namibia to Botswana to the east of the Kalahari in the south to South Africa to the Orange - also called the Orange River - bounded on the west by the South Atlantic and the north to Angola from the Kunene River and down the Okavango River. In the northeast is also a 450 km long and up to 50 km wide finger of land between the north and adjoining countries of Angola and Zambia to the south bordering Botswana - the Caprivi Strip.
Besides the border rivers, there are many other rivers, but of which except in the Caprivi and Kavango Kwando not one whole year leads to water safety. Outside the rainy season there are only a dry river beds.
The entire territory of Namibia has about 824,292 km ² and is more than twice as large as Germany. Namibia is essentially characterized by two deserts in the west by the South African province of the North Cape to far-reaching from Angola into Namib and the Kalahari in the east. Between two deserts, the average is 1700 meters high, around the capital, Windhoek around the 2,000-meter mark inland highland border. One of the most striking is the Etjo mountains, the highest mountain is about 2600 meters high Königstein in the Brandberg Massif, near the coast, about 200 km north of the coastal town of Swakopmund. In the east, the inland highlands gradually into the approximately 1200 meters above sea level, covered by dry vegetation on Kalahari highlands.
According to its geographical location in Namibia is the time zone UTC +2 (as well as South Africa). In connection with the independence has been introduced in Namibia as the only country in southern Africa a winter time - that is UTC +1. This feature leads, in comparison to Central Europe - depending on the season and taking into account the differing from Namibia conversion date - for a short time for a tie, but otherwise a time difference of +1 hours or -1 hour - with the exception of the eastern Caprivi Strip: there is all year long South African time. Changed is the first Sunday in April and September.
The area now known as Namibia is one of the oldest parts of the earth's crust. Long before the emergence of the super continent Gondwana formed over two billion years ago in what is now Africa two shelves: the Congo craton and the Kalahari craton. The latter includes large parts of present-day Namibia. By different tectonic processes was then about 550 million years ago a huge, contiguous continental territory, which comprised today's (sub-) continents of Africa, South America, Australia, India and Antarctica: Gondwana.
About 150 million years ago, this supercontinent began slowly into the continents we know today to break up and drift apart. The special, ongoing led over millions of climatic conditions in South Africa meant that many geological structures, processes and phenomena very well preserved and therefore still be observed. This ultimately includes the Namib, which must therefore be regarded as the oldest desert in the world.
The average climate in Namibia can be described as hot and dry. The largely arid continental climate is subtropical. There are large differences between the various parts of the country:
In the Namib west of the demolition stage of precipitation are extremely rare. It blows all year round, a warm, strong wind. Even in winter, temperatures often reach 25 ° C and more. In the hottest summer months of December and January temperatures are usually well above 30 ° C, while in the coldest months, July and August, at night can drop to freezing point, during the day but then rise again to around 25 ° C. The temperature differences between day and night is very large. Morning and evening is especially in the winter with temperature jumps of more than 20 ° C within a few hours to be expected. In the inland highlands, there may be due to the high altitude at night even frost and snow in very rare cases even years. During the day there is not quite as hot as the desert. In the Kalahari, it behaves similarly as in the Namib. The rainfall is slightly higher, but still typical desert rare.
The Caprivi Strip is instead characterized by frequent downpours. These have created an extensive river system and a lush tropical jungle. The humidity is here, in contrast to the other parts of the country is very high.
The climate of the Atlantic coast, in turn, is determined by the cold Benguela current. This cools the prevailing southwest wind off sharply, due to the formation of condensation (rain) clouds prevented and regularly creates a thick persistent fog near the ground. In summer it is pleasantly cool in the winter months, sometimes even during the cold. The water temperature rarely reaches more than 15 ° C.
The largest part of Namibia lies in the tropical summer rainfall region, that is, although irregular, but occasionally very heavy rainfall from November to April, and the extreme south, however, lies in the winter rainfall region, so that - if ever - occur rainfalls during the months of June and July. For all the irregularity of the rainfall in terms of frequency and yield assume that starting from the south with less than 50 mm per year to significantly toward the northeast with up to 600 mm per year, but this does not exclude regional drought of several years.
Due to the special climatic conditions of an agricultural land use is possible only to a limited extent: in the dry south, especially livestock, in the relatively rainy north and agriculture. A special feature of the Namib dunes in the Sossusvlei area. The star dunes are well over 200 meters the highest in the world. The attraction of these dunes is not alone in their height, but especially in their content of moisture and sun-related colors.
Although the official national language is English, Namibia is a multilingual country, as these examples show in German, Afrikaans and Oshivambo.
Namibia is sparsely populated. The population is concentrated in a few cities and the fertile north of the country. Around 44% of the population live in the regions Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena and Oshikoto. A third live in central Namibia, where there have in Windhoek alone more than 300,000 people reside. In the south of the country live only 7% of the population, while the West and the Namib Desert, with the exception of the ports are almost deserted.
Namibia takes the Human Development Index 2010 8 Place in Africa and the 105th global one.
Namibia currently has a total of about two million inhabitants (2005) with previously strong growth trend (1961: about 600,000 inhabitants). Especially in the years between 1970 and 1990, the population has more than doubled.
A Namibian woman brings into their lives an average of 3.6 children. The current annual population growth is 3%. However, over 20% of the population infected with HIV / AIDS. Thus, the average life expectancy at birth has fallen significantly. Live expectation in 1990 was about 62 years and in 2005 only 52 years. In 2008 it fell to 47 years for women and 48 years for men. Namibia in 2004, there were only 30 doctors per 100 000 population.
The Namibians today are a mixture of different but partly related peoples, mostly through multiple migrations between the 16th and 18 Century in the resettled area. This diversity of the population is also reflected in the spoken language. There are the Bantu languages, Khoisan languages of the Indo-European languages and the three major language groups with more than 30 separate languages and dialects. The languages spoken in Namibia Bantu languages are Oshivambo, Otjiherero, Rukwangali, SiLozi and Setswana. Among the Khoisan languages are the languages of the San Khoekhoegowab and how! Kung and Khoe. To give more than 50% of the Namibian population, Oshivambo to speak as their mother tongue.
Introduced by the Europeans and Indo-European languages such as Afrikaans Bastarts and German are spoken by only a small segment of the population as a native language, but particularly among farm workers and other languages whites still very common languages of communication. Of the white population speaks Afrikaans 60%, 32% German and 7% English.
German, Afrikaans and English were until the country's independence from South Africa 1990, the official languages. In order to definitively conclude the apartheid and foreign occupation, but to favor above all to any of the existing population and thus compromising the integrity of the country, the "neutral" English language was made the sole official language. The majority of the population speaks Afrikaans as a second language. German is the mother tongue of 1.1% (about 20,000) of the population and second language of most of the white population and a small portion of the black population (about 55,000). In daily life German is the most spoken language, especially in the transport industry and tourism. Although English is used only by less than 0.1% of the population spoken as native language at home, the proportion of those who can speak fluent English, increased dramatically in the years since independence. This is mainly due to the consistent use of English in schools, offices and media.
However, the English which is spoken in Namibia differs due to the low proportion of native speakers of various characteristics of the Oxford English. As for that has arisen over the years, especially among the black African population of the country a pidgin-like mixed language, which is frequently referred to as Namlish.
As a result of the mission during the colonial period, approximately 87% of Namibians are Christians, which is above the African average. Of these total number, 50% Lutheran, 20% Catholic, 5% members of the Dutch Reformed Church and Anglican 5%. The remaining Christians are spread to other smaller churches such as Baptists, Adventists, Apostolic Christians and the native of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in USA.
The remaining 13% of the population, especially San, Himba and Caprivians are followers of traditional indigenous religions. Islam plays virtually no role in Namibia, the number of Muslims in Namibia is estimated at a few thousand. Its headquarters is located in the Quba Mosque in Windhoek.
The dry lands of South West Africa have been for many thousands of years of living space and home to the peoples of the San and Damara. Portuguese sailors discovered the land in the 15th Century Europe. A significant settlement was not made, however, because of the inhospitable conditions in the coastal regions for a long time. In the wake of numerous African migrations invaded in the 17th Century beginning, Herero, Nama, Orlam and Ovambo tribes into one country. Only in the 19th Century experienced a strong migration of European settlers. These came mainly from Portugal, England and the German-speaking world. Until 1884/85 the country with the exception of Walvis Bay, which remained under British influence, under the domination of the German Empire and became the colony of German Southwest Africa. In May 1885 the first German officers arrived, among them imperial commissioner Ernst Heinrich Göring. He concluded with the help of local missionaries with the Herero, a defensive alliance. The Herero were promised protection from the Nama under Hendrik Witbooi, and in return they were not obliged to grant freedom of trade and the Germans without German consent to sell any land. When it became clear that the German administration to such protection was not in a position to the Herero announced the agreement and expelled the officials under Goering. As a result some 20 soldiers were sent to Curt von Francois, which has shown little more than a symbolic presence. Curt von Francois was with these soldiers with ruthless severity against the Herero and brought them as a very short time against her. As a result, had to protect the troops are constantly reinforced. 1894 deposed the German Reichstag and Curt von Francois Leutwein appointed as governor of "German South West Africa". Leutwein had only a very limited military budget and thus tried to strengthen the German government as violent and economically by several local leaders persuaded to cooperate. 1897 rinderpest decimated a large cattle holdings of the Herero. The white settlers were much less affected because they were able to vaccinate their cattle. The Herero lost with the cattle herds, the foundations of their autonomous and self-sufficient lifestyle and the whites had increasingly come into wage labor. The aim of many white settlers had to buy off the Herero Chiefs country. They sold so many times over several years the Herero European consumer goods on credit. Much later, she presented the bills and then collected the debts that had to be paid for with cattle and land. It also happened that traders of goods, where the Herero were not interested simply in the villages of the car and threw insisted later to pay. This "Zivilisierungsbemühungen" led to conflicts between the representatives of the German colonial rule and the people the colony. So it came to the 1904-1908 uprising of the Herero and Nama and the destruction of tens of thousands of Herero and Nama.
During the First World War the country was occupied by British troops in South Africa and with the end of the war the League of Nations Mandate of 1920 passed by the South African Union for the administration. This gave the country until its independence on 21st March 1990, despite intense international efforts and a two-decades-long armed struggle against the South West African People's Organization was founded in 1960 (SWAPO) occupied.
Since 1990, Namibia, after more than 100 years of foreign rule, an independent democratic state. The government has been asked since the founding of the Republic of SWAPO. It is the party of the largest population group, the Ovambo. After the SWAPO leader Sam Nujoma Samuel Shafishuna, which until 21 March 2005 is ruled, Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba, the second and current president of the country.
Discovery and colonization
The area of present-day Namibia was probably first settled before 2000 (to 2500) years ago by the immigrants from North Africa or even Central San. There have indeed been found in Namibia, rock engravings, indicating a significantly older population than 2000 years, the rock paintings at Twyfelfontein are probably over 10,000 years old, but they can not be matched with the necessary security to the San. Their rock paintings are clearly attributable in part well over 1000 years old and were only in 19/20. Century stopped altogether.
As part of the North-South-African migration penetrated between the 17th and 18 Century from the Bechuanaland (now Botswana), the first belonging to the Bantu tribes of cattle-breeding Herero in the 19th Century from the then Cape Province of the Nama and then from the same direction, the Africans in Namibia. They all led one of the Europeans at the Cape residents supported campaign of destruction against the San and pushed it off to the east into the Kalahari desert, where they were reduced to a hunter-gatherer economy. There, the San still live - tolerated by the governments of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia more than welcome, so far as they stubbornly resist all "Zivilisierungsbemühungen".
The colonization by German immigrants began about a hundred to one hundred and fifty years after the first immigrants of today who live there black trunks, and two hundred years after the colonization by the Dutch, the so-called Boers or Africans in the Cape and surrounding area and the founding of Cape Town 1652, respectively almost 400 years after its discovery by the Portuguese (Bartolomeu Diaz, 1488) and the subsequent founding of a colony. The latter was, however, due to increasingly difficult with the Khoi Khoi and was discontinued after a punitive expedition of the Portuguese viceroy, who returned along with his person never abandoned, and replaced later by the Dutch.
German colonial period to 1915
After having succeeded the German merchant Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz to purchase through contracts with local tribal leaders, vast tracts of land ("Luderitz Bay"), the country was declared by the Orange River to the Kunene River in 1884 to "preserve" German South West Africa and then the German colony. The news of fabulous diamond finds almost broke out a "gold rush" in the Imperial German Empire. In Lüderitz could pick up the Klippekies how the diamonds were described in the sand of the beach and the dunes of the desert. Which triggered the influx of traders and farmers and their land grab encountered increasing resistance from the indigenous Herero and Nama. The rude actions of the settlers met with resistance particularly among the Herero. Which end of the 19th Century dramatically deteriorating economic situation forced the Herero to further land sales and eventually to wage labor for German settlers. Ongoing conflicts between the settlers and the indigenous population was the captain of the Herero by Samuel Maharero and the Governor of German South Africa Leutwein are not resolved. It came in the wake of a German colonial war against the Herero and Nama the 1904 to 1907 and continued into a war of extermination outgrowth, an estimated 60,000 - cost 70,000 men, women and children's lives.
In January 1904 and is one guided by Samuel Maharero uprising of the Herero and Nama. With a total of about 15,000 men under Lieutenant General Lothar von Trotha of the Herero uprising was suppressed until August 1904 in the Battle of Waterberg. The majority of the Herero people then fled into the almost waterless Omaheke desert. Trotha was sealed off by this and chase the refugees from the few existing water points there, so that thousands of Herero died of thirst along with their families and cattle. The so-hunted in the desert could tell Trotha of the so-called extermination order: "The Herero are no longer German subjects. [...] Within the German border is shot every Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, I take no wives and no children, drive them back to their people or have them shot too. " The survivors were dispossessed, imprisoned in concentration camps and forced to hard labor. The abuse, inadequate nutrition and poor hygiene conditions in these camps have resulted in this second phase of the genocide of the Herero in the death of half of all prisoners.
The Nama uprising
Following the Herero war arose in October 1904 in the south of the country Witbooi - a root fixed strain, which had during the Herero War still being fought on the German side. This uprising joined the Fransman Nama, after the surrender of the Witbooi Nama in 1905 the guerrilla struggle under Simon Kooper and James Morenga led further to 1908, what was the name of this uprising Namaaufstand.
First World War
After the announcement of the outbreak of war Governor Theodor Seitz ordered on 7 August 1914 the general mobilization of the troops. There were several skirmishes with Union troops in South Africa, but also to disputes with the Portuguese in Angola. Some associations Boer from South Africa who had fought against their government, were partly destroyed and retreated back across the Orange River in order to join the German troops. At the beginning of the war, German troops were able to include the South Africans heavy losses, but they lost ground and finally had to give up.
On 9 July 1915 was signed by the commander of the army, Lieutenant-Colonel Franke, the imperial governor, and Seitz and the General Commander in Chief of the Union of South Africa Louis Botha a ceasefire agreement which amounted to a capitulation.
South African Management
German South West Africa was occupied during the First World War in South Africa and allocated by decision of the League of Nations in 1920 the Union of South Africa as a mandate. The South African administration succeeded in subsequent years to reduce the once strong German influence and lasting "südafrikanisieren" Namibia - including the expansion of the apartheid policy of the mandated territory. This triggered after the Second World War, numerous, but unsuccessful attempts of the UN to withdraw from South Africa, the former League of Nations mandate,. This was required before the UN General Assembly, as South Africa did not comply with its duties on the field over the body. Only after the International Court in The Hague had in 1971, the South African administration was declared illegal, South Africa in 1972 ready to dismiss South West Africa after a reasonable transition period to independence.
This behavior was also encountered in South Africa South West Africa and even on increasing support from the former Eastern Bloc massive resistance. The decision of the International Court of Justice gave this resistance, the required legitimacy, which led, ultimately, even to the fact that the majority of the Ovambo worn and the Soviet Union financed independence movement Southwest African People's Organization (SWAPO) awarded in 1973 by the United Nations the exclusive representative for Namibia was given. The South African-founded fear of getting possibly a socialist or communist-ruled neighboring country, triggered a decades-long guerrilla war in Namibia and Angola. It ended - in connection with the gradual self-dissolution of the Soviet bloc - in 1988 with the ceasefire between South Africa and Angola and the subsequent preparation of elections in Namibia.
On 21 March 1990 Namibia received, after more than 100 years of foreign rule, its independence. Following the ruling SWAPO leader Sam Nujoma Samuel Shafishuna as a clear majority of elected President of the country into three terms. The democratic opposition parties, including the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), were divided among themselves and play in the political life of SWAPO in Namibia alongside almost no role. A further term was not possible for the Namibian Constitution, so that in 2004 the former Minister of Agriculture issues, Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba - also Ovambo and SWAPO member - was elected the new president. On 21 March 2005 he was sworn in the presence of several African presidents, in Windhoek.
Some farm owners have accused the government not to tolerate abuse expropriation of farms under the Constitution or plan. The expropriations would not benefit the landless, but political officials, or were unreasonable in amount of compensation or notice. In individual cases, this also is accused of threats of violence.
Between 1998 and 2003, Namibia was involved in the Second Congo War.
The National Assembly is the legislative body, that is, laws can be enacted only by it. The Council has, according to the name, only an advisory function to the needs of each region to give adequate hearing. Namibia's highest court is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the President.
Since 1990 Namibia is a republic with a semi-presidential system of government. The vote on this took place in 1989, which can also be seen as the beginning of independence. Head of state is the president, who is elected every five years. The Namibian government consists of a Prime Minister who is appointed by the President together with the Cabinet. The Parliament has two chambers. One chamber is the National Council with 26 seats. Each of the 13 administrative regions sends two representatives every six years. The other chamber, the National Assembly with 78 seats, 72 of whom are elected by universal suffrage and six be appointed by the President. The term of office is five years.
At the regional and local level and the traditional leaders in Namibia, according to the Constitution of Namibia political responsibility in the legislation and case law was presented.
The Namibian constitution was also one of the first in the world who have taken environmental protection as a priority national objective This topic is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism.
Namibia is divided into thirteen regions. Each region is governed by a regional council, and depending on the size of the region, further divided into six to twelve electoral districts (constituencies). In total there are 107 electoral districts.
The nearly one hundred municipalities are divided into communes, towns, villages and settlements, with currently only thirteen communities in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia's capital, is by far the most populous and important city in Namibia - followed by Rundu, Walvis Bay, Swakopmund and Oshakati. Other major cities with over 20,000 inhabitants, Katima Mulilo, Grootfontein, Okahandja, Otjiwarongo and Rehoboth.
About 20% of the gross national product (GDP) is generated by mining in Namibia. Mining in Namibia are mainly uranium and diamonds, in addition to large quantities of copper, gold, lead, tin and natural gas encouraged. Famous diamond is the exclusion zone around Lüderitz. The largest uranium mine in the world, the Rössing Mine is northeast of Swakopmund. A major copper deposits located in Tsumeb, and the former world's largest tin mine was in Uis. Namibia is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, South Africa and Botswana), the billing units actually require a monetary union.
Although Namibia is one of the richer countries of Africa, Namibia's economy is also characterized by high unemployment (30-40%) and low wages: The monthly per capita income is only around € 120 - but with considerable variation. Because of low wages on the one hand and the very imperfect collection of income tax paid in 2004 on the other hand only about 64,000 inhabitants of Namibia taxes. According to the Gini coefficient of Namibia occupies the last place in the world and thus has the most unequal income distribution.
In addition, the fishing and tourism play an increasingly important role. To that effect, the manufacturing industry in Namibia is weak, so that a large part of consumer goods and machinery are imported.
Another important sector is agriculture, where about half of all workers are employed in Namibia, where the breeding of cattle and sheep, particularly karakul sheep, has the largest share. The cultivation of Hoodia is operated in Southern Namibia on farms. Be also grown including olives, grapes, dates and roses.
Mining and Industry
With a share of 20 percent of GDP and 50 percent of exports, mining and tourism are the main industry in Namibia. Especially the rich diamonds (De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines) and uranium ore deposits (Rössing mine, Langer Heinrich) are mentioned.
The size of the country, its varied landscapes and its rich animal had already Southwest Africa in the 1950s to become an interesting tourist area can be - at first, but especially for the nearby South African tourists who found unspoiled nature and seemingly endless length. In addition, Namibia was under South African administration, so that for the isolated South Africans at that time no entry barriers and stay there.
The tourism contributed 14% of GDP in 2010, making it the second most important industry of the country. It was implemented more than 11 billion Namibian dollars.
The 2010/2011 budget includes spending the equivalent of 4.1 billion U.S. dollars, the receipts were compared to the equivalent of 3.7 billion U.S. dollars. This results in a budget deficit equivalent yields of about 6.5% of GDP.
The national debt amounted to 2009/2010 1.4 billion U.S. dollars or 15.1% of GDP.
The railway network of the transport company TransNamib is still in its basic structure from the German colonial period and was initially determined primarily by military needs. It has since expanded to 2382 km and connects all major towns in Namibia. Nevertheless, the rail network can not be referred to as coverage. Rail transport plays mainly a role in the transport of goods, in contrast, the passenger transport, rail transport is almost irrelevant. Under the name "star line Passenger Services", will operate passenger trains between Windhoek and Tsumeb, Windhoek-Gobabis, Tsumeb Walvis Bay-, Walvis Bay-Swakopmund-Windhoek and from Upington (South Africa)-Keetmanshoop-Windhoek. In addition, the company also operates bus services to Khorixas, Luderitz Bay, Malta height, and Aranos Stampriet. Flagship of Namibia's railway is the "Desert Express" that runs between Windhoek and Swakopmund. Tsumeb is from a new line in the works, which is to continue to Angola in 2011 and become operational. Sections are already passable. The course follows the street in broad terms B 1 In addition, the railway line from Aus to Lüderitz is fundamentally renewed since 2006.
In contrast, the road network expanded nationwide and opens up all parts of the country. It is about 65,000 km long, of which about 60,000 km of dirt track nature trails (pad) to be maintained regularly or as needed with the grader. Only the main and national roads and major urban roads (5,000 miles) are paved. Namibia has a high level of motorization, which is not surprising in light of only rudimentary public transport. In Namibia there as well in the Republic of South Africa left-hand traffic.
Namibia is very well integrated into the international flight network and has its own national airline - Air Namibia. International airports have the capital Windhoek's Hosea Kutako International Airport (IATA code WDH / ex Windhoek International Airport), which was about 40 km east of the city created and the port town of Walvis Bay (Walvis Bay airport). More flight schedule of Air Namibia flies domestic airports are located in Oranjemund, Lüderitz, Katima Mulilo and Ondangwa. They also feature every major city of Namibia as well as many farms and lodges its own, technically more or less well-equipped landing sites, as there is, given the size of the country and the rising share of affluent tourists a variety of non-governmental air transport operators.
The only two deep water ports are located in Walvis Bay, Namibia in 1994 to only one transmitted enclave of South Africa, and in Lüderitz.
In Namibia, there are 13 statutory holidays. A special feature is in Namibia that public holidays falling on a Sunday, in principle, be rescheduled on the following Monday.
The Allgemeine Zeitung, only German-language daily newspaper in Africa, one of the largest newspapers in Namibia
The Hererotag is the last weekend of August in the Namibian town of Okahandja taking place day to commemorate the Battle of Waterberg. He is not a public holiday, will be perceived as such by the Herero.
Namibia has five major daily newspapers in four different languages: the largest daily newspaper in the country is the English-The Namibian, which appears in part in Oshivambo. Second largest is the Afrikaans daily newspaper Republikein. Government is the English-born New Era. The Allgemeine Zeitung is Africa's only German-language daily newspaper and sees itself as representing Namibian newspaper and a multilingual press. Namibian Sun, also in English, is the only daily tabloid newspaper in the country. As the Republikein, general and Namibian Sun newspaper belonging to the Democratic Media Holdings (DMH).
The Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) is the public broadcaster in Namibia with a half-day television and numerous radio programs in each of nine regional languages, including "NBC Deutsch service" (15 hours a day in German). The pro-government media are subject to state examination.
Namibia occupies on the press freedom index of Reporters Without Borders 21 Space (cf. 2009: 35th place) and No. 1 of all African states.
The primary education sector in Namibia is largely under private ownership. In the cities there are kindergartens and preschools in the country, the preschool education is often organized informally. On farms because of the large distances to the nearest villages partially furnished farm schools.
The secondary education (schools, vocational schools and secondary schools) is headed by the Ministry of Education. For schools and high schools.
Is a comprehensive system of vocational schools did not exist in Namibia. For certain occupations and trades (masons, plumbers, auto mechanics, tailors), there are vocational training centers (Vocational Training Centre, VTC), occasionally also offers the Polytechnic of Namibia at vocational schools similar educational backgrounds (for example, a hotel owner, surveyor, accountant). Most professions, however, taught informally through learning of trainees, without curriculum, grades, and official statements.
For young people with disabilities are available in Windhoek two government-sponsored educational institutions, the Dagbreek School for the mentally handicapped and the Ehafo Trust, a vocational training facility for people with disabilities of all kinds
The tertiary education sector is dominated by the three tertiary institutions, the University of Namibia (UNAM), the Polytechnic of Namibia and the International University of Management. The study is not free, be granted for gifted students from private and public grants.
The most popular sports are rugby and football in Namibia. Among the German Namibians roller hockey and ball of thumb is common among the Afrikaans especially Jukskei.
The National Association of Namibia Rugby Rugby Union was established in March 1990, founded in the year of independence, and joined the IRB in the same year. They are also members of the CAR. The national team is one of the best in Africa and they often qualify for the World Cup as one of two African teams. It is also a two-time African champions and two-time African champions vice.
The National Football Association Namibia Football Association was also founded in 1990. In 1992, the NFA at the FIFA and CAF. In the top division, the Namibia Premier League come, twelve teams compete against each other. The national team belongs to the midfield and in Africa in 1998 and 2008 could qualify for the Africa Cup.
The world's best-known Namibian Frank Fredericks athletes, track and field athlete in the 100 and 200 m distances and multiple medal winner at the Olympic Games.
The Icestocksport Association of Namibia was established in 2004 and took part in the same year and 2008 at the World Cup. The association was founded in 2005 and 2007 African champions.
Namibia also has a fist ball team and directed the 1995 Fistball World Cup and in January 2009, the Fistball U18 World Cup from. In addition, Namibia in 2008 taught the world championships in archery in accordance with directives of the IFAA.